The nicotine (the addictive substance in cigarettes), carbon monoxide, lead, arsenic, and numerous other poisons you inhale from a cigarette are carried through your bloodstream and go directly to your baby. Pharmaceutically it is a different kind of medication than other over-the-counter medications, such as ibuprofen and naproxen, which are also used to treat pain and fever. The main active ingredient in cigarettes and other tobacco products is nicotine. Smoking and Tobacco Use: Fact Sheets [Internet]. Liquid nicotine is a common form of nicotine poisoning. Nicotine is an agonist at nicotinic acetylcholine receptor which are present in the central and autonomic nervous systems, and the neuromuscular junction. All rights reserved. Young children may be tempted to swallow these common objects, especially round, coin-sized button batteries, which are particularly dangerous. While its been a relatively rare occurrence historically, nicotine toxicity has become more prevalent in recent years. 1988, Feb; 30(1): 20-22. The behavior of a newborn exposed to nicotine is similar to the behavior of a newborn exposed to illicit drugs such as cocaine. In fact, the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) reports that more than half of the Centers cases of nicotine poisoning in 2014 involved children younger than 6 years. Be sure to check battery-operated toys to ensure that batteries are secure (especially button batteries), and be mindful to store all batteries out of reach. Nicotine poisoning refers to toxicity related to nicotine products. The American Academy of Pediatrics Issues Sweeping Recommendations on Tobacco and e-Cigarettes. However, some encounters arent witnessed, and you need to have a high level of suspicion if your child has other signs, such as a strange smell on their breath, atypical drooling or unusual stains on their clothes. Children who grow up with parents who smoke are more likely to become smokers. The glycemic index (GI) is a value used to measure how much a specific food increases your blood sugar levels. A dose of 1 g/kg may be recommended in high-risk cases who present early. Because of . Clinical description After oral ingestion of nicotine, signs and symptoms of nicotine poisoning mimic those for nerve agent or organophosphate poisoning and typically include excess oral secretions, bronchorrhea, diaphoresis, vomiting (common, especially among children), diarrhea, abdominal cramping, confusion, and convulsions. If you do use, dont leave these products out; return them to childproof storage when finished. The hospital can also provide antidotes to help reverse the effects of the poisonous substance. Vet Hum Toxicol. Vomiting is the most common symptom of nicotine poisoning. In addition, sometimes teenagers can misuse nicotine products, including these gummies. Perfumes, colognes, aftershave, facial cleansers, hair tonics and mouthwash are particularly dangerous for children to ingest, as many of these products contain over 50% ethanol alcohol. Nicotine poisoning usually happens in two stages. The initial treatment of nicotine poisoning may include the administration of activated charcoal to try to reduce gastrointestinal absorption. She is adamant about helmets and seatbeltsand coffee. Nicotine is a highly addictive drug that is harmful for kids' still-developing brains, and can alter their memory, concentration, mood, learning ability, self-control and attention span. 2019;28(1):115-116. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2018-054273, Mishra A, Chaturvedi P, Datta S, Sinukumar S, Joshi P, Garg A. Nicotine poisoning results from too much nicotine. In addition, young children are frequently exposed to secondhand and thirdhand nicotine aerosols generated by e-cigarettes, with little understanding of the effects these exposures can have on health. acetaminophen, aspirin), prescription antidepressants, cardiovascular medications (e.g. Be sure to keep any packaging handy, including the list of ingredients or prescription bottle. 6 Symptoms of poisoning include nausea, vomiting, seizures, and respiratory depressions. To keep you and your family and pets safe from nicotine poisoning, the most effective approach would be to eliminate or ban tobacco-containing or nicotine-containing products in your home. The initial symptoms are mainly due to stimulatory effects and include nausea and vomiting, excessive salivation, abdominal pain, pallor, sweating, hypertension, tachycardia, ataxia, tremor, headache, dizziness, muscle fasciculations, and seizures. The center is open 24/7 to answer questions and offer advice for possible toxicity to a variety of substances. The younger a person is when they start using tobacco, the more likely they are to become addicted. Nicotine dependence occurs when you need nicotine and can't stop using it. Do not follow any packaging instructions regarding poisoning, as these are often outdated. Nicotine poisoning is a serious threat when using tobacco and nicotine products, but there are ways you can help minimize toxicity. With these products, its the liquid nicotine that can be dangerous, especially to children. Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 10/25/2021. Even some "nicotine-free" e-cigarettes have been found to contain nicotine. It is typically caused by liquid nicotine ingestion and can lead to overdose and even fatality. Mild nicotine poisoning causes nausea, vomiting, dizziness, tremors, sweating and high blood pressure. Some common examples include analgesics (e.g. So experts say . For higher-risk exposures, consider: Patients who are either asymptomatic following exposure or who are recovering from gastrointestinal symptoms only should be monitored for 4 hours prior to discharge.  Smoking excessive amounts of tobacco has also led to poisoning; a case was reported where two brothers smoked 17 and 18 pipes of tobacco in succession and were both fatally poisoned. Both options are free, confidential and available 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Flavored tobacco, usually smoked through a hookah, is a growing trend. Brown Medical School explains that newborns exposed to nicotine exhibit symptoms such as jitteriness and excitability. She cannot live without GooGone and her power drill. Nicotine is a natural toxic substance found in tobacco products. You might experience: increased salivation stomach cramps diarrhoea headaches other symptoms like confusion or agitation. (2014). This article reviews all you need to, Healthline has strict sourcing guidelines and relies on peer-reviewed studies, academic research institutions, and medical associations. Nicotine is a drug that is considered to have negative side effects on babies similar to illegal drug use during pregnancy, notes Science Daily. At low doses nicotine causes stimulatory effects on these receptors, however, higher doses or more sustained exposures can cause inhibitory effects leading to neuromuscular blockade.. Other treatments may be necessary depending on the damage done to the body. Stopping the use of nicotine-containing products. More than half of February calls involved young children. zolpidem), opioid narcotics (e.g. Recognition, use, and perceptions of JUUL among youth and young adults. The webPOISONCONTROLtool or the poison specialist will tell you exactly what to do. This includes "smoke juice", liquid nicotine for electronic cigarettes. Summarized from: Borys DJ, Setzer SC, and Ling LJ. 9, 10 In high enough doses nicotine can be deadly. Severe cases warrant an emergency room visit. Casual smoking, even as few as six cigarettes per day, can cause physical effects on newborn babies. Immediately remove any contaminated clothing, being careful to limit your own contact.  Historically, most cases of nicotine poisoning have been the result of use of nicotine as an insecticide. Nicotine in smokeless tobacco products that are used during pregnancy can affect how a baby's brain develops before birth. Activated charcoal is very rarely indicated. , Standard textbooks, databases, and safety sheets consistently state that the lethal dose of nicotine for adults is 60mg or less (3060mg), but there is overwhelming data indicating that more than 500mg of oral nicotine is required to kill an adult. Third-hand vapors from e-cigarettes can stick to clothing, carpet, and other fabrics. Report: Children at high risk of nicotine poisoning, injuries working on tobacco farms. In the United States, an estimated 43.8 million people smoke cigarettes. -- A toddler from upstate New York could be the first child to die from liquid nicotine, the substance used in e-cigarettes, poisoning in the U.S., concerning health officials as e-cigarettes continue to rise in popularity. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Newborns that are born to mothers who smoke have an increased risk of being born prematurely. If youve had severe exposure, symptoms can last up to 18 to 24 hours after exposure. " Ingestion of nicotine pharmaceuticals, tobacco products, or nicotine containing plants may also lead to poisoning. Last medically reviewed on August 7, 2017, If you have allergic reactions to tobacco products or tobacco smoke, you might have a nicotine allergy. If a person is able to survive during the first four hours after poisoning, theyre usually likely to recover. digoxin), blood thinners (e.g. Nicotine Salts and Nicotine Poisoning. How much nicotine kills a human? // Leaf Group Lifestyle, Symptoms of Babies Born to Fathers with Addictions, Science Daily: Nicotine Changes Newborn Behavior Similar to Heroin and Crack, Baby Center: How Smoking During Pregnancy Affects You and Your Baby. As if parents didnt have enough to worry about, accidental poisonings are unfortunately a common occurrence. Take measures to ensure you dont use more than one source of nicotine at a time, and keep nicotine and tobacco away from children. Poisonous fumes. Loss of full control of body movements (ataxia), loss of balance, difficulty walking. Nicotine patches can be poisonous if a child ingests them or if they come in contact with the skin. Rapid, heavy breathing (hyperpnea). Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorous, poisonous gas that is emitted from fuel-burning appliances that are not functioning properly or are not well-vented, such as gas ranges/ovens, furnaces, space heaters, clothes dryers, gas water heaters, portable generators, wood-burning fireplaces and stoves, as well as cars. Keep all motor oil, paint thinners, lighter fluid and gasoline stored away from reach. Initial stimulatory effects occur within minutes and may include agitation, diaphoresis, nausea and vomiting, tachycardia, bronchoconstriction and seizures. *note: e-cigarette devices and liquid nicotine solutions remain unregulated in Australia. Sealing used nicotine containers in case children or pets dig them out of the trash. Phase 2 is a later period of depressor effects. However, the greatest risk of nicotine poisoning is in children because of their lower body weight and smaller size. NEVER store cigarettes and other nicotine products where children can see or reach them. For significant skin exposure wash affected area with soap and water. The Neurological Institute is a leader in treating and researching the most complex neurological disorders and advancing innovations in neurology. Harmful effects of nicotine. Vape juice can kill kids. In high enough doses, nicotine is also a poisonchildren have been harmed or even died from drinking e-cigarette liquid. Hookah smoke poses dangers linked to secondhand smoke. Calls to poison control centers about e-cigarettes are rising, the CDC says. More information Vaping: Dangerous, Available & Addicting If their skin shows signs of burns, continue rinsing for 15 minutes. metoprolol, verapamil), sleeping aids (e.g.  The majority of cases (65%) were in children under age five and 15% were in ages 524. Duke University Health System. Increased nicotine or cotinine (the nicotine metabolite) is detected in urine or blood, or serum nicotine concentrations increase.  95% of traditional cigarette calls were related to children 5 years old or less. A ventilator may also be necessary, which helps deliver oxygen if youve stopped breathing. She believes the key to parenting survival is surrounding yourself with other families and raising kids as a village. Intravenous fluids (IV) fluids to treat low blood pressure. When ingested, the charcoal binds with the nicotine and exits the body without further absorption in the blood. This new potential health hazard was revealed in a multi-institutional study led by researchers with Berkeley Lab. , From September 1, 2010 to December 31, 2014, there were at least 5,970 e-cigarette calls to US poison control centers.  Approximately 0.1% of cases developed life-threatening symptoms. The Food and Drug Administration on Tuesday authorized the sale of two new reduced nicotine cigarettes. 1 Since their introduction, there has been an increase in the use of e-cigarettes in the United States. The prognosis depends on how much nicotine was taken and how quickly treatment was started. 4 Reported exposure to this solution in 10 children resulted in hospital evaluation in 7 and mild nicotine poisoning . Dr. Seran Kim is a board-certified Emergency Physician, cancer survivor and mom to three rambunctious boys, and shes one of the doctors who helped develop the Babylist First Aid Kit. Definition. Children are the most vulnerable. Newborns exposed to nicotine exhibit symptoms as they grow and get older.  However the widely used human LD50 estimate of 0.51.0mg/kg was questioned in a 2013 review, in light of several documented cases of humans surviving much higher doses; the 2013 review suggests that the lower limit causing fatal outcomes is 5001000mg of ingested nicotine, corresponding to 6.513mg/kg orally. Early phase symptoms after ingestion include: The early phase occurs within 15 minutes to one hour. Tobacco Companies Fail to Warn Zimbabwe's Farmers of Nicotine Poisoning's Dangers . Poisoning from other illicit substances, such as cocaine, methamphetamine, ecstasy, synthetic cannabinoids (known as synthetic marijuana, K2 or spice) or synthetic cathinones (found in bath salts) can also cause irreparable harm when ingested. Tracing back the generally accepted lethal dose to dubious self-experiments in the nineteenth century", "Electronic cigarettes: product characterisation and design considerations", "Acute nicotine poisoning associated with a traditional remedy for eczema", "Exposure Calls to U. S. Poison Centers Involving Electronic Cigarettes and Conventional Cigarettes-September 2010-December 2014", "Notes from the field: calls to poison centers for exposures to electronic cigarettes--United States, September 2010-February 2014", "Electronic cigarettes and cardiovascular risk: hype or up in smoke? Keep cleaning supplies and laundry/dishwashing pods out of reach of children. She was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit where she remained minimally responsive for the rest of the night. Also, some artificial nail glue removers contain a chemical that is similar to cyanide and causes seizures, loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest. scores once they become school age. This prevents the possibility of choking on vomit. The amount of cigarettes smoked by the mother during pregnancy will influence the severity of these symptoms. Its also the chemical that makes tobacco products addictive. Copyright 2023 Leaf Group Ltd., all rights reserved. This spike is attributed to new versions of nicotine products. Late clinical signs in larger exposures (1 to 4 hours). ALWAYS make sure that discarded nicotine products, such as cigarette butts, chewing tobacco, flavored tobacco, and nicotine gum or patches, are out of sight and reach of children or pets. 50 Remember, there is no antidote for nicotine poisoning. The good news is that most childhood poisonings are accidental, and with proper precautions, are highly preventable. Some children and toddlers who come in contact with e-cigarette devices or liquid nicotine have become very ill; some even requiring emergency department visits with nausea and vomiting being the most significant symptoms. Hemodialysis, hemoperfusion or other extracorporeal techniques do not remove nicotine from the blood and are therefore not useful in enhancing elimination. Liquid nicotine and smokeless tobacco products are the leading causes of nicotine poisoning. The American Academy of Pediatrics. This treatment is given in a hospital setting. Call Poison Control at 1-800-222-1222 or use thewebPOISONCONTROLonline tool ifsomeone has swallowed nicotine. Continue CPR until your child starts to breathe on their own again, or someone else can take over. Other treatments specific to other symptoms or bodily damage of the individual. Poisoning is more common in children due to their smaller size. Symptoms include difficulty breathing, vomiting, fainting, headache, weakness, and increased or decreased heart rate. Medication was administered to dry her secretions. If your child needs emergency treatment, the poison specialist will let you know right away. You may experience fatigue, headache, dry mouth, or other symptoms when you stop smoking. , It is unlikely that a person would overdose on nicotine through smoking alone. Increased levels of nicotine or cotinine (nicotine metabolite) can be detected in urine or blood. " Four adults died in the US and Europe, after intentionally ingesting liquid. Severe poisoning can be life-threatening and lead to seizures. As such, product labels are unreliable and true nicotine concentrations have been shown to vary widely. Nicotine salts require special consideration when it comes to nicotine poisoning. Always keep nicotine products away from children. , E-cigarette exposure cases in the US National Poison Data System increased greatly between 2010 and 2014, peaking at 3,742 in 2014, fell in 2015 though 2017, and then between 2017 and 2018 e-cigarette exposure cases increased from 2,320 to 2,901. Mayer B. A number of harmful chemicals have been detected in cigarettes, including: arsenic cyanide. Symptoms typically last an hour or two after a mild overdose and up to 24 hours for severe poisoning. Do not put ointment, eye drops or an eye patch on the eye unless instructed to do so. Baby Center notes that mothers who smoke during pregnancy double the chance that the baby will be small at birth, possibly weighing less than 5 1/2 lbs. Aside from nicotine the vapour when exhaled contains: Ultrafine particles - these can be inhaled deep into the lungs and may exacerbate conditions such as asthma and emphysema and could lead to a heart attack 3, 4 A Vaper's Guide to Avoiding Nicotine Poisoning. They are marketed to adults to help them quit smoking, but they look similar to gummy candy, which can result in children accidentally tasting or swallowing them. The full effects of vaping and vaping while pregnant are still being investigated but the following are a list of the current known side effects:. or.  They commented that "Serious nicotine poisoning seems normally prevented by the fact that relatively low doses of nicotine cause nausea and vomiting, which stops users from further intake. . If theyre not conscious, make sure they lie on their side. fentanyl) and antihistamines (e.g. Nicotine salts are a relatively new phenomena, first introduced to the vaping marketing 2015 . Beware that these products often contain as much alcohol as alcoholic beverages. An ER doctor gives prevention tips and what do in case of poisoning. It can happen if a child ingests medications found in the home, or if a parent accidentally gives a child more than the correct dosage. Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. 1,3 Smokeless tobacco can cause nicotine poisoning in children. Acute nicotine poisoning usually occurs in young children who accidentally chew on nicotine gum or patches. Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol. Vomiting occurs in more than 50% of people with symptoms. Symptoms of nicotine poisoning At first, neurological symptoms include convulsion, depression, coma, fainting, confusion and headaches. Nicotine addiction occurs when a person becomes addicted to nicotine, which is a chemical found in tobacco. Acetaminophen is a pain-relieving (analgesic) and fever-treating (antipyretic) medication that can be obtained over-the-counter. Nicotine is highly toxic. Nonetheless, this value is still widely accepted over the 500mg figure as the basis for safety regulations of tobacco and other nicotine-containing products (such as the EU wide TPD, set at a maximum of 20mg/ml. Early signs are: Headache Dizziness Sleepiness As the exposure continues, possible additional symptoms include: Nausea Vomiting Heart palpitations Unconsciousness What about lead poisoning? Small volumes may cause life-threatening toxicity in children. If you witness your child swallowing a poison, or you find your child with an open or empty container of a toxic substance: If your child spills a chemical on their body: If your child splashes poison into their eyes: If your child breathes in poisonous vapors or gases (such as from a running car in a closed garage, leaky gas vents or strong fumes from cleaners or solvents): As with most accidents, the key to poisoning is prevention. Batteries contain alkaline electrolytes and are found in many common household items such as watches, calculators, remote controls, flashlights, hearing aids, key fobs and toys. Nicotine exposure during adolescence can disrupt normal brain development. It can cause nausea, vomiting, or seizures. Amber Canaan has a medical background as a registered nurse in labor and delivery and pediatric oncology. Symptoms vary depending on the product ingested but can include severe burns to the mouth/throat/stomach, bloody stool or vomit, abdominal pain, confusion, loss of consciousness and convulsions. When heated, the nicotine becomes a vapor, which users inhale. American Association of Poison Control Centers. ALWAYS store cigarettes and other nicotine products where children cannot see or reach them. Newborns exposed to nicotine exhibit symptoms as they grow and get older. Dont use a generator, charcoal grill, camp stove or other gasoline- or charcoal-burning device inside the home. Nicotine poisoning tends to produce symptoms that follow a biphasic pattern. Organophosphates inhibit an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase, causing a buildup of acetylcholine, excessive stimulation of all types of cholinergic neurons, and a wide range of symptoms. Unfortunately, children do accidentally consume nicotine products and there have been reports of children under 10 getting nic sick. Nicotine poisoning results from too much nicotine. Nicotine is a bitter-tasting compound that naturally occurs in large amounts in the leaves of tobacco plants. Using an unclean pipe or sharing a pipe with other smokers is risky. Some poisons are toxic in small doses, but others are harmless substances that can become poisonous if encountered in large enough quantities. At higher doses, a second phase involving bradycardia, hypotension, respiratory failure and coma may supervene 1 to 4 hours after exposure. The freshest in parenting this week, delivered to your inbox. High blood pressure which suddenly drops and pounding, rapid heartbeat followed by slow heart rate. Nicotine poisoning in children comes mostly from eating cigarettes and consuming liquid nicotine either from absorbing spilled nicotine through their skin or through the mucous membrane in their mouth or from swallowing liquid nicotine. Nicotine - E-cigarettes contain nicotine which is highly addictive 2; Lung damage 17, 18 - Read about the potential damage to the lungs from vaping; Poison - Nicotine vaping liquid can be poisonous within a few minutes of contact to an . , Children may become ill following ingestion of one cigarette; ingestion of more than this may cause a child to become severely ill. The nicotine in the e-liquid of an electronic cigarette can be hazardous to infants and children, through accidental ingestion or skin contact. Phase 1 are mainly due to stimulatory effects. Remove the child's clothes and rinse the skin with lukewarm water for at least 15 minutes. tea tree oil), herbals and vitamins (e.g. A recent increase in poisonings is due to liquid nicotine, a product in the popular e-cigarette. You also shouldnt give them any food or liquids. Nicotine poisoning can occur with any form of nicotine-cigarette smoking, e-cigarettes, chewing tobacco and snuff, and even nicotine patches. , "Nicotiana glauca (tree tobacco) intoxication--two cases in one family", "How much nicotine kills a human? 650. 7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. If someone is having symptoms, call Poison Control at 1-800-222-1222. While you and your child are on the way, Poison Control will call the emergencyroom and give treatment advice.  A 2015 Public Health England report noted an "unconfirmed newspaper report of a fatal poisoning of a two-year old child" and two published case reports of children of similar age who had recovered after ingesting e-liquid and vomiting. According to Dr. Sears, these newborns may have a lower level of mental performance by the time they are a year old and lower I.Q. Nicotine is very poisonous. Sweating. Mother. A poisoning can occur in almost any setting, from any substance and in any form (liquid, solid or gas). Nicotine is highly addictive and can affect the developing brain, potentially harming teens and young adults. Treatments may include: You can help prevent nicotine poisoning by: If you or your child has been exposed to liquid nicotine, call the Poison Center hotline at 800-222-1222 or call 911. Death from nicotine poisoning is not common in adults because of their larger body size. Children may become ill after eating one cigarette. Gastric lavage was performed to help wash out her stomach and she was given activated charcoal; these were used to reduce the amount of nicotine absorbed by her bloodstream. At lower doses, nicotine causes stimulating effects on the receptors present there but at higher doses or more sustained exposure, the effects are inhibitory and can lead to neuromuscular problems. Death can occur within one hour after severe exposure. Other forms of nicotine are also extremely poisonous: cigarettes, cigars, chewing tobacco, pipe tobacco, nicotine gum if chewed by a child, nicotine patches if chewed on by a child, and liquid nicotine used for electronic cigarettes. Nicotine gummies contain nicotine in the form of a gummy candy. Acute nicotine poisoning usually occurs in young children who accidentally chew on nicotine gum or patches. Our website services, content, and products are for informational purposes only. American Academy of Pediatrics. Children are much more prone to nicotine overdose because of their smaller body size. Alcohol: A Dangerous Poison for Children (The Poison Post). Accidental ingestion of liquid nicotine has been responsible for the deaths of several young children. The exposure provoked symptoms in 62 of these children, about two-thirds of whom were under the age of 4 years. A vaping law's slow rollout left them at risk of nicotine poisoning. In Oklahoma, all but two of the 25 cases in the first two . How to prevent poisoning in babies and children, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Poisoning. Symptoms include inconsolable crying/irritability, slowed breathing, elevated heart rate, chest pain, loss of consciousness and seizures. Other treatments are given to treat specific symptoms. The most commonly poisoned children are 6 years old or younger. The actual treatment protocol ultimately depends on the poison substance and the route of exposure. Nicotine poisoning refers to the toxic effects of consuming nicotine. Small ingestions could be deadly. The discrepancy between the historically stated 60-mg dose and published cases of nicotine intoxication has been noted previously (Matsushima et al. The more teenagers and adults use tobacco products, the more likely it is that infants and children will find and swallow them. Chewing and snorting tobacco releases more nicotine into the body than smoking. FDA Approves Low Nicotine Cigarette: Will It Help? Serkalem Mekonnen, RN, BSN, MPH
The products come in flavors with attractive scents and inviting packaging. Even liquid nicotine spilled on the skin can be poisonous within minutes. Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH). These newborns may also grow to be smaller in stature with a smaller head circumference than other children who werent exposed to nicotine while in the womb. Poison Control will then tell you if you can safely watch your child at home. With Jerry Orbach, Benjamin Bratt, S. Epatha Merkerson, Sam Waterston. the Paediatric Infant Perinatal Emergency Retrieval (PIPER) Service: 1300 137
Nicotine withdrawal is the set of physical symptoms that are. Today, nicotine poisoning has become a growing concern because of new nicotine products on the market, particularly electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and pure liquid nicotine. Willett JG, Bennett M, Hair EC, et al. It has been reported that, since the advent of e-cigarettes and vapes, the instances of nicotine poisoning have increased - especially among teens. Updated January 20, 2016. E-cigarettes and liquid nicotine. Return them to out-of-reach storage as soon as youre done with them. Nicotine is highly toxic and rapidly absorbed after either ingestion or inhalation. Increase your baby's heart rate. 2005).
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